Bug Summary

File:clang/lib/StaticAnalyzer/Checkers/cert/InvalidPtrChecker.cpp
Warning:line 151, column 31
Called C++ object pointer is null

Annotated Source Code

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clang -cc1 -cc1 -triple x86_64-pc-linux-gnu -analyze -disable-free -clear-ast-before-backend -disable-llvm-verifier -discard-value-names -main-file-name InvalidPtrChecker.cpp -analyzer-store=region -analyzer-opt-analyze-nested-blocks -analyzer-checker=core -analyzer-checker=apiModeling -analyzer-checker=unix -analyzer-checker=deadcode -analyzer-checker=cplusplus -analyzer-checker=security.insecureAPI.UncheckedReturn -analyzer-checker=security.insecureAPI.getpw -analyzer-checker=security.insecureAPI.gets -analyzer-checker=security.insecureAPI.mktemp -analyzer-checker=security.insecureAPI.mkstemp -analyzer-checker=security.insecureAPI.vfork -analyzer-checker=nullability.NullPassedToNonnull -analyzer-checker=nullability.NullReturnedFromNonnull -analyzer-output plist -w -setup-static-analyzer -analyzer-config-compatibility-mode=true -mrelocation-model pic -pic-level 2 -mframe-pointer=none -relaxed-aliasing -fmath-errno -fno-rounding-math -mconstructor-aliases -funwind-tables=2 -target-cpu x86-64 -tune-cpu generic -debugger-tuning=gdb -ffunction-sections -fdata-sections -fcoverage-compilation-dir=/build/llvm-toolchain-snapshot-14~++20211016100712+8e1d532707fd/build-llvm -resource-dir /usr/lib/llvm-14/lib/clang/14.0.0 -D CLANG_ROUND_TRIP_CC1_ARGS=ON -D _DEBUG -D _GNU_SOURCE -D __STDC_CONSTANT_MACROS -D __STDC_FORMAT_MACROS -D __STDC_LIMIT_MACROS -I tools/clang/lib/StaticAnalyzer/Checkers -I /build/llvm-toolchain-snapshot-14~++20211016100712+8e1d532707fd/clang/lib/StaticAnalyzer/Checkers -I /build/llvm-toolchain-snapshot-14~++20211016100712+8e1d532707fd/clang/include -I tools/clang/include -I include -I /build/llvm-toolchain-snapshot-14~++20211016100712+8e1d532707fd/llvm/include -D NDEBUG -U NDEBUG -internal-isystem /usr/lib/gcc/x86_64-linux-gnu/10/../../../../include/c++/10 -internal-isystem /usr/lib/gcc/x86_64-linux-gnu/10/../../../../include/x86_64-linux-gnu/c++/10 -internal-isystem /usr/lib/gcc/x86_64-linux-gnu/10/../../../../include/c++/10/backward -internal-isystem /usr/lib/llvm-14/lib/clang/14.0.0/include -internal-isystem /usr/local/include -internal-isystem /usr/lib/gcc/x86_64-linux-gnu/10/../../../../x86_64-linux-gnu/include -internal-externc-isystem /usr/include/x86_64-linux-gnu -internal-externc-isystem /include -internal-externc-isystem /usr/include -O2 -Wno-unused-command-line-argument -Wno-unknown-warning-option -Wno-unused-parameter -Wwrite-strings -Wno-missing-field-initializers -Wno-long-long -Wno-maybe-uninitialized -Wno-class-memaccess -Wno-redundant-move -Wno-pessimizing-move -Wno-noexcept-type -Wno-comment -std=c++14 -fdeprecated-macro -fdebug-compilation-dir=/build/llvm-toolchain-snapshot-14~++20211016100712+8e1d532707fd/build-llvm -ferror-limit 19 -fvisibility-inlines-hidden -fgnuc-version=4.2.1 -fcolor-diagnostics -vectorize-loops -vectorize-slp -analyzer-output=html -analyzer-config stable-report-filename=true -faddrsig -D__GCC_HAVE_DWARF2_CFI_ASM=1 -o /tmp/scan-build-2021-10-17-004846-21170-1 -x c++ /build/llvm-toolchain-snapshot-14~++20211016100712+8e1d532707fd/clang/lib/StaticAnalyzer/Checkers/cert/InvalidPtrChecker.cpp
1//== InvalidPtrChecker.cpp ------------------------------------- -*- C++ -*--=//
2//
3// Part of the LLVM Project, under the Apache License v2.0 with LLVM Exceptions.
4// See https://llvm.org/LICENSE.txt for license information.
5// SPDX-License-Identifier: Apache-2.0 WITH LLVM-exception
6//
7//===----------------------------------------------------------------------===//
8//
9// This file defines InvalidPtrChecker which finds usages of possibly
10// invalidated pointer.
11// CERT SEI Rules ENV31-C and ENV34-C
12// For more information see:
13// https://wiki.sei.cmu.edu/confluence/x/8tYxBQ
14// https://wiki.sei.cmu.edu/confluence/x/5NUxBQ
15//===----------------------------------------------------------------------===//
16
17#include "clang/StaticAnalyzer/Checkers/BuiltinCheckerRegistration.h"
18#include "clang/StaticAnalyzer/Core/BugReporter/BugType.h"
19#include "clang/StaticAnalyzer/Core/Checker.h"
20#include "clang/StaticAnalyzer/Core/CheckerManager.h"
21#include "clang/StaticAnalyzer/Core/PathSensitive/CallEvent.h"
22#include "clang/StaticAnalyzer/Core/PathSensitive/CheckerContext.h"
23
24using namespace clang;
25using namespace ento;
26
27namespace {
28
29class InvalidPtrChecker
30 : public Checker<check::Location, check::BeginFunction, check::PostCall> {
31private:
32 BugType BT{this, "Use of invalidated pointer", categories::MemoryError};
33
34 void EnvpInvalidatingCall(const CallEvent &Call, CheckerContext &C) const;
35
36 using HandlerFn = void (InvalidPtrChecker::*)(const CallEvent &Call,
37 CheckerContext &C) const;
38
39 // SEI CERT ENV31-C
40 const CallDescriptionMap<HandlerFn> EnvpInvalidatingFunctions = {
41 {{"setenv", 3}, &InvalidPtrChecker::EnvpInvalidatingCall},
42 {{"unsetenv", 1}, &InvalidPtrChecker::EnvpInvalidatingCall},
43 {{"putenv", 1}, &InvalidPtrChecker::EnvpInvalidatingCall},
44 {{"_putenv_s", 2}, &InvalidPtrChecker::EnvpInvalidatingCall},
45 {{"_wputenv_s", 2}, &InvalidPtrChecker::EnvpInvalidatingCall},
46 };
47
48 void postPreviousReturnInvalidatingCall(const CallEvent &Call,
49 CheckerContext &C) const;
50
51 // SEI CERT ENV34-C
52 const CallDescriptionMap<HandlerFn> PreviousCallInvalidatingFunctions = {
53 {{"getenv", 1}, &InvalidPtrChecker::postPreviousReturnInvalidatingCall},
54 {{"setlocale", 2},
55 &InvalidPtrChecker::postPreviousReturnInvalidatingCall},
56 {{"strerror", 1}, &InvalidPtrChecker::postPreviousReturnInvalidatingCall},
57 {{"localeconv", 0},
58 &InvalidPtrChecker::postPreviousReturnInvalidatingCall},
59 {{"asctime", 1}, &InvalidPtrChecker::postPreviousReturnInvalidatingCall},
60 };
61
62public:
63 // Obtain the environment pointer from 'main()' (if present).
64 void checkBeginFunction(CheckerContext &C) const;
65
66 // Handle functions in EnvpInvalidatingFunctions, that invalidate environment
67 // pointer from 'main()'
68 // Handle functions in PreviousCallInvalidatingFunctions.
69 // Also, check if invalidated region is passed to a
70 // conservatively evaluated function call as an argument.
71 void checkPostCall(const CallEvent &Call, CheckerContext &C) const;
72
73 // Check if invalidated region is being dereferenced.
74 void checkLocation(SVal l, bool isLoad, const Stmt *S,
75 CheckerContext &C) const;
76};
77
78} // namespace
79
80// Set of memory regions that were invalidated
81REGISTER_SET_WITH_PROGRAMSTATE(InvalidMemoryRegions, const MemRegion *)namespace { class InvalidMemoryRegions {}; using InvalidMemoryRegionsTy
= llvm::ImmutableSet<const MemRegion *>; } namespace clang
{ namespace ento { template <> struct ProgramStateTrait
<InvalidMemoryRegions> : public ProgramStatePartialTrait
<InvalidMemoryRegionsTy> { static void *GDMIndex() { static
int Index; return &Index; } }; } }
82
83// Stores the region of the environment pointer of 'main' (if present).
84// Note: This pointer has type 'const MemRegion *', however the trait is only
85// specialized to 'const void*' and 'void*'
86REGISTER_TRAIT_WITH_PROGRAMSTATE(EnvPtrRegion, const void *)namespace { class EnvPtrRegion {}; using EnvPtrRegionTy = const
void *; } namespace clang { namespace ento { template <>
struct ProgramStateTrait<EnvPtrRegion> : public ProgramStatePartialTrait
<EnvPtrRegionTy> { static void *GDMIndex() { static int
Index; return &Index; } }; } }
87
88// Stores key-value pairs, where key is function declaration and value is
89// pointer to memory region returned by previous call of this function
90REGISTER_MAP_WITH_PROGRAMSTATE(PreviousCallResultMap, const FunctionDecl *,namespace { class PreviousCallResultMap {}; using PreviousCallResultMapTy
= llvm::ImmutableMap<const FunctionDecl *, const MemRegion
*>; } namespace clang { namespace ento { template <>
struct ProgramStateTrait<PreviousCallResultMap> : public
ProgramStatePartialTrait<PreviousCallResultMapTy> { static
void *GDMIndex() { static int Index; return &Index; } };
} }
91 const MemRegion *)namespace { class PreviousCallResultMap {}; using PreviousCallResultMapTy
= llvm::ImmutableMap<const FunctionDecl *, const MemRegion
*>; } namespace clang { namespace ento { template <>
struct ProgramStateTrait<PreviousCallResultMap> : public
ProgramStatePartialTrait<PreviousCallResultMapTy> { static
void *GDMIndex() { static int Index; return &Index; } };
} }
92
93void InvalidPtrChecker::EnvpInvalidatingCall(const CallEvent &Call,
94 CheckerContext &C) const {
95 StringRef FunctionName = Call.getCalleeIdentifier()->getName();
96 ProgramStateRef State = C.getState();
97 const auto *Reg = State->get<EnvPtrRegion>();
98 if (!Reg)
99 return;
100 const auto *SymbolicEnvPtrRegion =
101 reinterpret_cast<const MemRegion *>(const_cast<const void *>(Reg));
102
103 State = State->add<InvalidMemoryRegions>(SymbolicEnvPtrRegion);
104
105 const NoteTag *Note =
106 C.getNoteTag([SymbolicEnvPtrRegion, FunctionName](
107 PathSensitiveBugReport &BR, llvm::raw_ostream &Out) {
108 if (!BR.isInteresting(SymbolicEnvPtrRegion))
109 return;
110 Out << '\'' << FunctionName
111 << "' call may invalidate the environment parameter of 'main'";
112 });
113
114 C.addTransition(State, Note);
115}
116
117void InvalidPtrChecker::postPreviousReturnInvalidatingCall(
118 const CallEvent &Call, CheckerContext &C) const {
119 ProgramStateRef State = C.getState();
120
121 const NoteTag *Note = nullptr;
122 const FunctionDecl *FD = dyn_cast_or_null<FunctionDecl>(Call.getDecl());
1
Assuming null pointer is passed into cast
123 // Invalidate the region of the previously returned pointer - if there was
124 // one.
125 if (const MemRegion *const *Reg = State->get<PreviousCallResultMap>(FD)) {
2
Assuming 'Reg' is null
3
Taking false branch
126 const MemRegion *PrevReg = *Reg;
127 State = State->add<InvalidMemoryRegions>(PrevReg);
128 Note = C.getNoteTag([PrevReg, FD](PathSensitiveBugReport &BR,
129 llvm::raw_ostream &Out) {
130 if (!BR.isInteresting(PrevReg))
131 return;
132 Out << '\'';
133 FD->getNameForDiagnostic(Out, FD->getASTContext().getLangOpts(), true);
134 Out << "' call may invalidate the the result of the previous " << '\'';
135 FD->getNameForDiagnostic(Out, FD->getASTContext().getLangOpts(), true);
136 Out << '\'';
137 });
138 }
139
140 const LocationContext *LCtx = C.getLocationContext();
141 const auto *CE = cast<CallExpr>(Call.getOriginExpr());
4
The object is a 'CallExpr'
142
143 // Function call will return a pointer to the new symbolic region.
144 DefinedOrUnknownSVal RetVal = C.getSValBuilder().conjureSymbolVal(
145 CE, LCtx, CE->getType(), C.blockCount());
146 State = State->BindExpr(CE, LCtx, RetVal);
147
148 // Remember to this region.
149 const auto *SymRegOfRetVal = dyn_cast<SymbolicRegion>(RetVal.getAsRegion());
5
Assuming the object is not a 'SymbolicRegion'
6
'SymRegOfRetVal' initialized to a null pointer value
150 const MemRegion *MR =
151 const_cast<MemRegion *>(SymRegOfRetVal->getBaseRegion());
7
Called C++ object pointer is null
152 State = State->set<PreviousCallResultMap>(FD, MR);
153
154 ExplodedNode *Node = C.addTransition(State, Note);
155 const NoteTag *PreviousCallNote =
156 C.getNoteTag([MR](PathSensitiveBugReport &BR, llvm::raw_ostream &Out) {
157 if (!BR.isInteresting(MR))
158 return;
159 Out << '\'' << "'previous function call was here" << '\'';
160 });
161
162 C.addTransition(State, Node, PreviousCallNote);
163}
164
165// TODO: This seems really ugly. Simplify this.
166static const MemRegion *findInvalidatedSymbolicBase(ProgramStateRef State,
167 const MemRegion *Reg) {
168 while (Reg) {
169 if (State->contains<InvalidMemoryRegions>(Reg))
170 return Reg;
171 const auto *SymBase = Reg->getSymbolicBase();
172 if (!SymBase)
173 break;
174 const auto *SRV = dyn_cast<SymbolRegionValue>(SymBase->getSymbol());
175 if (!SRV)
176 break;
177 Reg = SRV->getRegion();
178 if (const auto *VarReg = dyn_cast<VarRegion>(SRV->getRegion()))
179 Reg = VarReg;
180 }
181 return nullptr;
182}
183
184// Handle functions in EnvpInvalidatingFunctions, that invalidate environment
185// pointer from 'main()' Also, check if invalidated region is passed to a
186// function call as an argument.
187void InvalidPtrChecker::checkPostCall(const CallEvent &Call,
188 CheckerContext &C) const {
189 // Check if function invalidates 'envp' argument of 'main'
190 if (const auto *Handler = EnvpInvalidatingFunctions.lookup(Call))
191 (this->**Handler)(Call, C);
192
193 // Check if function invalidates the result of previous call
194 if (const auto *Handler = PreviousCallInvalidatingFunctions.lookup(Call))
195 (this->**Handler)(Call, C);
196
197 // Check if one of the arguments of the function call is invalidated
198
199 // If call was inlined, don't report invalidated argument
200 if (C.wasInlined)
201 return;
202
203 ProgramStateRef State = C.getState();
204
205 for (unsigned I = 0, NumArgs = Call.getNumArgs(); I < NumArgs; ++I) {
206
207 if (const auto *SR = dyn_cast_or_null<SymbolicRegion>(
208 Call.getArgSVal(I).getAsRegion())) {
209 if (const MemRegion *InvalidatedSymbolicBase =
210 findInvalidatedSymbolicBase(State, SR)) {
211 ExplodedNode *ErrorNode = C.generateNonFatalErrorNode();
212 if (!ErrorNode)
213 return;
214
215 SmallString<256> Msg;
216 llvm::raw_svector_ostream Out(Msg);
217 Out << "use of invalidated pointer '";
218 Call.getArgExpr(I)->printPretty(Out, /*Helper=*/nullptr,
219 C.getASTContext().getPrintingPolicy());
220 Out << "' in a function call";
221
222 auto Report =
223 std::make_unique<PathSensitiveBugReport>(BT, Out.str(), ErrorNode);
224 Report->markInteresting(InvalidatedSymbolicBase);
225 Report->addRange(Call.getArgSourceRange(I));
226 C.emitReport(std::move(Report));
227 }
228 }
229 }
230}
231
232// Obtain the environment pointer from 'main()', if present.
233void InvalidPtrChecker::checkBeginFunction(CheckerContext &C) const {
234 if (!C.inTopFrame())
235 return;
236
237 const auto *FD = dyn_cast<FunctionDecl>(C.getLocationContext()->getDecl());
238 if (!FD || FD->param_size() != 3 || !FD->isMain())
239 return;
240
241 ProgramStateRef State = C.getState();
242 const MemRegion *EnvpReg =
243 State->getRegion(FD->parameters()[2], C.getLocationContext());
244
245 // Save the memory region pointed by the environment pointer parameter of
246 // 'main'.
247 State = State->set<EnvPtrRegion>(
248 reinterpret_cast<void *>(const_cast<MemRegion *>(EnvpReg)));
249 C.addTransition(State);
250}
251
252// Check if invalidated region is being dereferenced.
253void InvalidPtrChecker::checkLocation(SVal Loc, bool isLoad, const Stmt *S,
254 CheckerContext &C) const {
255 ProgramStateRef State = C.getState();
256
257 // Ignore memory operations involving 'non-invalidated' locations.
258 const MemRegion *InvalidatedSymbolicBase =
259 findInvalidatedSymbolicBase(State, Loc.getAsRegion());
260 if (!InvalidatedSymbolicBase)
261 return;
262
263 ExplodedNode *ErrorNode = C.generateNonFatalErrorNode();
264 if (!ErrorNode)
265 return;
266
267 auto Report = std::make_unique<PathSensitiveBugReport>(
268 BT, "dereferencing an invalid pointer", ErrorNode);
269 Report->markInteresting(InvalidatedSymbolicBase);
270 C.emitReport(std::move(Report));
271}
272
273void ento::registerInvalidPtrChecker(CheckerManager &Mgr) {
274 Mgr.registerChecker<InvalidPtrChecker>();
275}
276
277bool ento::shouldRegisterInvalidPtrChecker(const CheckerManager &) {
278 return true;
279}