Scudo Hardened Allocator

Introduction

The Scudo Hardened Allocator is a user-mode allocator based on LLVM Sanitizer’s CombinedAllocator, which aims at providing additional mitigations against heap based vulnerabilities, while maintaining good performance.

Currently, the allocator supports (was tested on) the following architectures:

  • i386 (& i686) (32-bit);
  • x86_64 (64-bit);
  • armhf (32-bit);
  • AArch64 (64-bit).

The name “Scudo” has been retained from the initial implementation (Escudo meaning Shield in Spanish and Portuguese).

Design

Allocator

Scudo can be considered a Frontend to the Sanitizers’ common allocator (later referenced as the Backend). It is split between a Primary allocator, fast and efficient, that services smaller allocation sizes, and a Secondary allocator that services larger allocation sizes and is backed by the operating system memory mapping primitives.

Scudo was designed with security in mind, but aims at striking a good balance between security and performance. It is highly tunable and configurable.

Chunk Header

Every chunk of heap memory will be preceded by a chunk header. This has two purposes, the first one being to store various information about the chunk, the second one being to detect potential heap overflows. In order to achieve this, the header will be checksummed, involving the pointer to the chunk itself and a global secret. Any corruption of the header will be detected when said header is accessed, and the process terminated.

The following information is stored in the header:

  • the 16-bit checksum;
  • the class ID for that chunk, which is the “bucket” where the chunk resides for Primary backed allocations, or 0 for Secondary backed allocations;
  • the size (Primary) or unused bytes amount (Secondary) for that chunk, which is necessary for computing the size of the chunk;
  • the state of the chunk (available, allocated or quarantined);
  • the allocation type (malloc, new, new[] or memalign), to detect potential mismatches in the allocation APIs used;
  • the offset of the chunk, which is the distance in bytes from the beginning of the returned chunk to the beginning of the Backend allocation;

This header fits within 8 bytes, on all platforms supported.

The checksum is computed as a CRC32 (made faster with hardware support) of the global secret, the chunk pointer itself, and the 8 bytes of header with the checksum field zeroed out. It is not intended to be cryptographically strong.

The header is atomically loaded and stored to prevent races. This is important as two consecutive chunks could belong to different threads. We also want to avoid any type of double fetches of information located in the header, and use local copies of the header for this purpose.

Delayed Freelist

A delayed freelist allows us to not return a chunk directly to the Backend, but to keep it aside for a while. Once a criterion is met, the delayed freelist is emptied, and the quarantined chunks are returned to the Backend. This helps mitigate use-after-free vulnerabilities by reducing the determinism of the allocation and deallocation patterns.

This feature is using the Sanitizer’s Quarantine as its base, and the amount of memory that it can hold is configurable by the user (see the Options section below).

Randomness

It is important for the allocator to not make use of fixed addresses. We use the dynamic base option for the SizeClassAllocator, allowing us to benefit from the randomness of mmap.

Usage

Library

The allocator static library can be built from the LLVM build tree thanks to the scudo CMake rule. The associated tests can be exercised thanks to the check-scudo CMake rule.

Linking the static library to your project can require the use of the whole-archive linker flag (or equivalent), depending on your linker. Additional flags might also be necessary.

Your linked binary should now make use of the Scudo allocation and deallocation functions.

You may also build Scudo like this:

cd $LLVM/projects/compiler-rt/lib
clang++ -fPIC -std=c++11 -msse4.2 -O2 -I. scudo/*.cpp \
  $(\ls sanitizer_common/*.{cc,S} | grep -v "sanitizer_termination\|sanitizer_common_nolibc") \
  -shared -o scudo-allocator.so -pthread

and then use it with existing binaries as follows:

LD_PRELOAD=`pwd`/scudo-allocator.so ./a.out

Clang

With a recent version of Clang (post rL317337), the allocator can be linked with a binary at compilation using the -fsanitize=scudo command-line argument, if the target platform is supported. Currently, the only other Sanitizer Scudo is compatible with is UBSan (eg: -fsanitize=scudo,undefined). Compiling with Scudo will also enforce PIE for the output binary.

Options

Several aspects of the allocator can be configured through the following ways:

  • by defining a __scudo_default_options function in one’s program that returns the options string to be parsed. Said function must have the following prototype: extern "C" const char* __scudo_default_options(void).
  • through the environment variable SCUDO_OPTIONS, containing the options string to be parsed. Options defined this way will override any definition made through __scudo_default_options;

The options string follows a syntax similar to ASan, where distinct options can be assigned in the same string, separated by colons.

For example, using the environment variable:

SCUDO_OPTIONS="DeleteSizeMismatch=1:QuarantineSizeKb=64" ./a.out

Or using the function:

extern "C" const char *__scudo_default_options() {
  return "DeleteSizeMismatch=1:QuarantineSizeKb=64";
}

The following options are available:

Option 64-bit default 32-bit default Description
QuarantineSizeKb 256 64 The size (in Kb) of quarantine used to delay the actual deallocation of chunks. Lower value may reduce memory usage but decrease the effectiveness of the mitigation; a negative value will fallback to the defaults.
QuarantineChunksUpToSize 2048 512 Size (in bytes) up to which chunks can be quarantined.
ThreadLocalQuarantineSizeKb 1024 256 The size (in Kb) of per-thread cache use to offload the global quarantine. Lower value may reduce memory usage but might increase contention on the global quarantine.
DeallocationTypeMismatch true true Whether or not we report errors on malloc/delete, new/free, new/delete[], etc.
DeleteSizeMismatch true true Whether or not we report errors on mismatch between sizes of new and delete.
ZeroContents false false Whether or not we zero chunk contents on allocation and deallocation.

Allocator related common Sanitizer options can also be passed through Scudo options, such as allocator_may_return_null. A detailed list including those can be found here: https://github.com/google/sanitizers/wiki/SanitizerCommonFlags.